Organizational Behavior - Quick Guide
Organizational Behavior - Introduction
Organizational Behavior (OB) can be defined as understanding, prediction and the management of human behavior both individually or in groups that occur within an organization.
Internal and external perspectives are the two theories of how organizational behavior can be viewed from an organization's perspective. In this tutorial, we will learn about both theories in detail.
Importance of OB
While working in an organization, it is very important to understand the behavior of others and to make others understand ours. In order to maintain a healthy working environment, we need to adapt to the environment and understand the goals we need to achieve. This can be done easily if we understand the importance of OB.
The following points highlight the importance of OB -
It helps to explain the interpersonal relationships that employees share with each other as well as with their higher and lower subordinates.
The prediction of individual behavior can be explained.
It balances the cordial relationship in a business by maintaining effective communication.
It helps with marketing.
It helps managers to encourage their subordinates.
Any change within the organization can be facilitated.
It helps in predicting human behavior and its application to achieve the objectives of the organization.
It helps to make the organization more efficient.
Thus, the study of organizational behavior helps to recognize patterns of human behavior and, in turn, sheds light on the facon whose these models deeply influence the performance of an organization.
Organizational Behavior - Determinants
There are three main factors that affect OB. Since the work environment is the basis of the three factors, they are also known as the determinants of OB. The three determinants are -
An organization is made up ofpeople with different traits, personality, skills, qualities, interests, background, beliefs, values and intelligence. In order to maintain a healthy environment, all employees must be treated equally and judged on the basis of their work and other aspects that affect the business.
Example - A company offers a campus placement to interns from different states like Orissa, Haryana, Arunachal Pradesh and many others. However, during and after the training, all trainees are examined solely on the basis of their performance in the assigned tasks.
Structure is the organizational design of an organization. It is the construction and organization of relationships, strategies according to the organizational objective.
Example - Organizational structure defines the relationship of a manager with employees and colleagues.
Technology can be defined as the implementation of scientific knowledge for practical use. It also provides the resources required by people who affect the performance of their work and tasks in the right direction.
Example - The introduction of SAP, Big Data and other software on the market determines individual and organizational performance.
All companies operate in a given internal and external environment. The internal environment can be defined as the conditions, factors and elements within a company that influence the activities, the choices made by the company and especially the behavior of the employees. While the external environment can be defined as external factors that affect the ability of the business to function. Some of them can be manipulated by the marketing of the company.rise, while others require the company to make adjustments.
Some examples of the internal environment include employee morale, cultural changes, financial changes or problems, and some examples of the external environment include political factors, changes in the economy and the business itself.
Organizational behavior - Concepts
The concept of OB is based on two key elements, namely -
- Nature of people
- Nature of organization
Nature of people
Simply put, the nature of people is the basic qualities of 'a person, or the character that personifies an individual, they can be similar or unique. Speaking at the organizational level, some major factors affecting the nature of people were highlighted. These are -
Individual difference - It is the managerial approach towards each employee individually, that is to say individually approach and not the statisticaJ approach, that is to say avoidance of a single rule. Example - The manager should not be a supporter of a particular employee, rather, treat them equally and try not to judge anyone on anything other than their job.
Perception - It is a unique ability to observe, listen and conclude something. It is to believe in our senses. In short, the way we interpret things and have our point of view is our perception. Example - Aman thinks that night parties spoil young people while Anamika thinks that night parties are a way to make new friends. Here we see that Aman and Anamika have a different perception of the same thing.
A whole person - As we all know that the skills or the skillhe brain of a person cannot be used, we must employ a whole person. Competence comes from experience and knowledge. Our personal life cannot be completely separated from our professional life, just as emotional conditions cannot be separated from physical conditions. So people work The functioning of a total human being is not a specific characteristic of the human being.
Motivated behavior - This is behavior that is implanted or caused by certain motivations of a person, a group or even of a situation. In an organization, we can see two different types of motivated employees -
Positive motivation - Encourage others to change their behavior or say they are accomplishing a task by attracting them through promotions or any other profit. Example - "If you complete this, you will gain some. "
Negative motivation - Force or warn others to change their behavior otherwise there can be serious consequences. Example - "If you do not fill this out, you will be deprived of the office. "
Value of the person - Employees want to be valued and appreciated for their skills and abilities, followed by opportunities that help them develop.
Nature of the organization
Nature of orguel’s indication of the reason for the business. These are the opportunities it offers in the global market. It also sets the standard for employees; in short, it defines the character of the business by acting as a mirror image of the business. We can understand the nature of any business with its social system, the mutual interest it shares and the work ethic.
Let's take a quick look at all these factors -
Social system - Every organizationsocializes with other companies, their customers, or just the outside world, and all of its employees - their own roles and social statuses. Their behavior is mainly influenced by their group as well as by individual impulses. The social system is of two types, namely -
Formal - Groups formed by people working together in a company or people who belong to the same club is considered a formal social system . Example - A successful party after getting a project.
Informal - A group of friends, people who socialize freely with others, enjoying, partying or relaxing. Example - Birthday party.
Mutual benefit - Every organization needs people and people need organizations to survive and prosper. Basically it is a comprehensione mutual between the organization and the employees which helps the two to reach their respective objectives. Example - We deposit our money in the bank, in return the bank grants us a loan, interest, etc.
Ethics - These are the moral principles of an individual, a group and an organization. In order to attract and retain valuable employees, ethical treatment is necessary and certain moral standards must be set. In fact, companies are now establishing a code of ethics to reward notable ethical behavior.
Organizational Behavior - Scope
In a very broad sense, the scope of the OB is the measure in which he can govern or influence the operations of an organization. The scope of the OB includes 3 concepts respectively -
It is about the study of personality, learning, attitudes, motivation and job satisfaction of the individual. In this study, we interact with others in order to study about them and to make our perception about them.
Example - The personal interview cycle is conducted to interact with the candidates in order to verify their candidates other than those mentioned in the curriculum vitae.
This is the study conducted through the communication between employees among themselves as well as their subordinates, understanding the leadership qualities of people, dynamic of group, group conflicts, power and politics.
Example - A meeting to decide on the list of new members of the board of directors.
Group behavior studies the formation of the organization, the structure of the organization and the effectiveness of the organization. Collective efforts to achievethe goal of the organization is group behavior. In short, this is the way a group behaves.
Example - Strike, rally, etc.
Functions of a manager
The functions of a manager are the different roles played by the manager in an organization. A manager is responsible for all events in the business and is accountable to management. The seven main roles played by the manager are -
- Directing / directing
Roles d 'a Manager
Now let's see what exactly these roles are and their importance. Starting with the first role.
Planning - The basic step required for any project, big or small, is step planning. The manager must plan theschedule and give the plan of how the task is to be performed with all the necessary details, and the manager should also have a backup plan which if this happens does not work then what to do next. Example - There is a new project, how to start, the necessary human resources, the necessary resources, etc., everything must be planned.
Organization - Next comes the organization part, where the manager has to synchronize and has to make sure everything is going according to plan. Everything should work according to plan, and if not, the manager should look into the problem and make it work as expected. Example - A software tester is required, so arrange the place, date and time to interview those eligible for the job.
Staff - Simply put, staffing means grouping people into different teams and lto assign different tasks. If the team members have any disagreements, the team member should notify the team leader who will forward it to the manager and the issue will be resolved. Example - Assemble a new team for a new project.
Direct / Direct - It is the manager's responsibility to guide employees in all situations in order to avoid conflicts and delays in task. The manager should direct the employees so that they can have a clear idea of what needs to be done and how to do it. Example - a team needs a team leader to take care of every completed, ongoing or interrupted task.
Coordination - It means bringing all employees together by establishing an effective relationship and making them feel comfortable freely sharing their points and their problems. Example - Coordination of the calendar of a projet.
Reporting - The manager must keep up-to-date information on all ongoing activities tasks, and it is the sole responsibility of the manager to report status updated to higher authorities; while all employees are required to report to the manager. Example - Keep the respective directors informed of the progress of their respective projects.
Budgeting - A task must be completed within the allotted time and must be profitable. The manager should be double sure that the total amount invested in the project does not exceed the given budget and if there is an imbalance, the budget manager should report to management. Example - If the budget allows for three employees, five employees cannot be assigned to the task.
Control - Last but of course, the least role played by the manager is to control everything. thatit is the budget or the allocation of resources, everything should be in order. Example - Not all members of a team may be granted leave on the same day, as this affects the delivery of work.
Different challenges of a manager
We have seen the different roles that a manager must play in order to maintain the balance of the work flow in an organization. With all of these responsibilities, there are tough challenges for a manager trying to balance everything. Here are some challenges a manager faces -
Managing the diversity of the workforce - The manager should not create or encourage discrimination among employees. Employees from different backgrounds, cultures and ethnicities should be treated equally and rewards should only be given based on their work.
Improvement of thequality and productivity - It is the sole responsibility of the manager to increase productivity without compromising quality. This can be done in two ways -
Total Quality Management - This is a constant concern for customer satisfaction by improving the organizational process.
Engineering process - Focus on manufacturing the product, so that quality is not compromised.
Respond to labor storage - In case of labor shortage 'work, the manager must react quickly to resolve this problem by taking the necessary measures so that the delivery of products is not delayed.
Elimination of the labor shortage - The manager must take prompt action, if there is a labor shortage- and should back up with backup plans so that there is noshortage of labor in the future.
Improving Customer Service - The manager is faced with the challenge of constantly improving customer service in order to survive in an ever competitive environment.
Improving ethical behavior - Managers must ensure that employees behave properly and maintain the decorum of the company. These are some of the major challenges a manager must face when trying to complete a project. To maintain work-life balance and to improve the organization, the manager must try the best to resolve these challenges.
Organizational Behavior - Models
Organizational behavior reflects the behavior of people and management all together, it is considered commetudy not just a discipline. A discipline is an accepted science based on ftheoretical foundations, while OB is an interdisciplinary approach where knowledge of different disciplines like psychology, sociology, anthropology, etc. are included. It is used to solve organizational problems, especially those related to human beings.
There are four different types of models in OB. We will illuminate each of these four models.
The root level of this model is power with a managerial orientation of authority. The employees of this model are oriented towards obedience and discipline. They depend on their boss. The employee requirement that is met is subsistence. The performance result is less.
The main disadvantages of this model are people are easily frustrated, insecurity, dependence on superiors, minimum performance due to minimum wage.
The levelroot of this model is economic resources with a managerial orientation of money. Employees of this model are geared towards safety and the benefits available to them. They depend on the organization. The employee requirement that is met is safety.
This model is suitable for companies with significant resources as the name suggests. It depends on economic resources. This approach requires depending on the company rather than the manager or the boss. They give passive cooperation because they are satisfied but not strongly encouraged.
The root level of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation of support. The employees of this model are oriented towards their professional performance and their participation. The employee requirement that is met is status and recognition. The result of the performance is awake readers.
Thismodel depends on the leadership effort. It provides a climate to help employees grow and get the job done for the benefit of the organization. Management work consists of helping work performance. Employees feel a sense of participation.
The root level of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation for teamwork. The employees of this model are oriented towards responsible behavior and self-discipline. The employee requirement that is met is self-updating. The performance result is moderate zeal.
This is an extension of the support model. The teamwork approach is adapted to this model. Self-discipline is maintained. Workers feel obliged to respect quality standards for a better image of the company. A feeling of "acceptance and" respect is perceived.
Organizational behavior - Learning
Learning can be defined as the permanent change in behavior due to direct and indirect experience. This means a change in behavior, attitude due to education and training, practice and experience. It is complemented by the acquisition of relatively permanent knowledge and skills.
Nature of learning
Natured 'apprenticeship means the characteristics of learning. Learning involves change; it may or may not guarantee improvement. It should be of a lifelong nature, i.e. the learning is for the whole life.
The change in behavior is the result of experience, practice and training. Learning is reflected in behavior.
Factors Affecting Learning
Learning is based on certain key factors that decide what changes will be brought about by this experience. The key elementsor the main factors that affect learning are motivation, practice, environment and mental group.
Getting back to these factors, let's take a look at these factors -
Motivation - L ' encouragement, the support you get to accomplish a task, to achieve a goal is known as motivation. This is a very important aspect of learning because it gives us positive energy to complete a task. Example - The coach motivated the players to win the match.
Training - We all know that "practice makes us perfect." To be a perfectionist or at least complete the task, it is very important to put into practice what we have learned. Example - We can only be a programmer when we execute the codes we have written.
Environment - We learn from our environment, we apprenounce the people around us. They are of two types of environment - internal and external. Example - A child at home learns from the family which is an internal environment, but when sent to school it is an external environment.
Mental Group - It describes our reflection by the group of people with whom we have chosen to spend time. Simply put, we are a group of those people we connect with. It could be for a social cause where people with the same mentality work in the same direction. Example - A group of readers, travelers, etc.
These are the main factors that influence what a person learns, these are the root level Crazy our behavior and everything we do is related to what we let's learn.
How does learning happen?
Learning can be clearly understood using thissome theories that will explain our behavior. Some of the remarkable theories are -
- Theory of classical conditioning
- Theory of operant conditioning
- Theory of social learning
- Theory of cognitive learning
Theory of classical conditioning
Classical conditioning occurs when a conditioned stimulus is coupled with an unconditioned stimulus. Usually the conditioned stimulus (CS) is an impartial stimulus like the sound of a tuning fork, the unconditioned stimulus (US) is biologically effective as the taste of food and the unconditioned response (UR) to the unconditioned stimulus is an unlearned reflex response such as salivation or sweating.
After this coupling process is repeated (for example, some learning can already take place after a single coupling), an individual shows a mentioned condresponse (CR) to theconditioned stimulus, when the conditioned stimulus is presented alone. The conditioned response is mainly similar to the unconditioned response, but unlike the unconditioned response, it must be acquired by experience and is almost impermanent.
Theory of operant conditioning
The theory of operant conditioning is also known as instrumental conditioning . This theory is a learning process in which the combehavior is sensitive or controlled by its results.
Let's take an example of a child. A child can learn to open a box to put the candy in or to avoid touching a hot stove. In comparison, classical conditioning develops a relationship between a stimulus and a behavior. The example can be developed further because the child can learn to salivate at the sight of candy, or to tremble at the sight of an angry pa
In the twentieth century, the Study of animal learning was commissioned by the analysis of these two types of learning, and they are still at the heart of behavioral analysis.
Theory of social learning
The key assumptions of the company learning theory is as follows -
Learning is not exactly behavioral, but rather a cognitive process that takes place in a social context.
Learning can be produce by observing a behavior and observing the results of the behavior (called proxy reinforcement).
Learning includes observation, extraction of extraction information from these observations and making decisions about behavioral performance (known as observational learning or modeling) .Thus, learning can occur beyond a change in observable behavior.
Reinforcementhe important role does not play a role in learning but is not entirely responsible for learning.
The learner is not a passive receiver of information. Understanding, environment and behavior influence each other.
Theory of cognitive learning
Cognition defines ideas, thoughts, knowledge, interpretation, understanding of a person and his environment.
ThisTheory views learning as the result of deliberate thinking about a problem or situation based on known facts and responding in an objective and more oriented manner. It perceives that a person learns the meaning of various objects and events and also learns the response based on the meaning assigned to the stimuli.
This theory debates that the learner forms a cognitive structure in memory which stores organized information on the various events that occur.
Learning and Organizational Behavior
The behavior of an individual in an organization is directly or indirectly affected by learning.
Example - Competence of employees, attitude of manager are all learned.
Behavior can be improved by following the tips listed -
Reduce absenteeism by rewarding employees for their attendance fair.
Improve employee discipline by dealing with unwanted behavior, drinking at work, stealing, being late, etc. taking appropriate action such as oral reprimands, written warnings and suspension.
Develop training programs more often in order to catch the attention of trainees, provide the required motivational properties, etc.
Organizational behavior - Personality
The word personality is derived from a Greek word "persona " which means "speak through ". Personality is the combination of characteristics or qualities that forms the unique idea of a personality. It signifies the role that a person plays in public. Each individual has a unique, personal and major determinant of their behavior that defines their personality.
The personality trait is fundamentally influenced by two main characteristics -
- Inherited characteristics
- Learned characteristics
The characteristics that a person acquires from his parents or ancestors, in other words, the gifted characteristics that an individual possesses at birth are considered to be inherited characteristics. It consists of the following features -
- Color of a person's eye
- Religion / Race of a person
- Shape of the nose
- Shape of the ear lobes
Nobody learns everything by birth. First, our school is our home, then our society, then educational institutions. The characteristics that an individual acquires by observing, practicing and learning from others and the environment is known as learned characteristics.
The characteristics learned include the characteristics suivantes -
Perception - Result of different senses like feeling, hearing, etc.
Values - Influences the perception of a situation, the decision-making process.
Personality - Models of thought, feeling, understanding and behavior.
Attitude - Positive or negative attitude like expressing your thoughts.
Personality Traits are the enduring characteristics that define an individual's behavior. A personality trait is a unique characteristic of an individual. Psychologists have resolved that there are five major personality traits and that each individual can be classified into at least one of them. These five personality traits are -
Major Personality Attributes
Here are the top five personality attributes that influence OB -
Place of control
Place of control is the control center of an individual's code of conduct. People can be grouped into two categories, internal and external respectively.
People who see themselves as masters of their own destiny are called internal, while those who claim that their lives are controlled by external forces called external.
Before making a decision, interns actively seek information, are focused on success, and want to control their environment. Thus, interns do well in jobs that involve complex information processing, taking independent initiatives and actions. , routine work.
Machiavellianism is practical, emotionally distantand believe that the end justifies the means.
The Machiavellians always want to win and are great persuaders. Here are the important characteristics of an individual with high mach -
- High-Mach prefers precise interactions rather than beating around the bush.
- Top -Machines tend to improvise; they don't necessarily follow the rules and regulations all the time.
- The High-Machs are distracted by emotional details that are irrelevant to the outcome of a project.
This is the extent to which people like or dislike each other. Self-esteem is directly linked to expectations of success and job satisfaction.
People with high self-esteem think they have what it takes to succeed. Thus, they face more challenges when selecting a job.
By contrast, individuals with low self-esteemself are more sensitive to external distractions. Thus, they are more likely to seek the approval of others and to adapt the beliefs and behaviors of thoseect.
Self-supervision is the ability to regulate one's behavior according to social situations. Individuals with high self-monitoring skills easily adjust their behavior based on external situational factors. Their impulsive talents allow them to present public figures that are completely different from their private figures.
However, people with low self-supervision skills cannot cover themselves. Whatever the situation, they are still themselves. They have an attitude of 'what you see is what you get.
In general, managers are reluctant to take risks. However, the individual tendency to take risksThis affects most of the information required by managers and the time it takes them to make decisions.
It is therefore very important to recognize these differences and to align the propensity to take risks with specific professional requirements which may make sense.
Theories of personality
A theory is a simple model of reality that helps us understand, explain, predict and face reality. We have some theories that explain the personality of an individual.
Psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud
This theory is based on the belief that man is encouraged more by unforeseen forces than by conscious and logical thought. Freud believed that most things in life are not present at the conscious level but they are present at an unconscious level.
The characteristics of Freud's theory include three attributes - Id, Ego et Superego.
Id - It defines the innate component of the personality. It is the impulsive and unconscious part of the mind which seeks immediate satisfaction. Example - A hungry baby cries until he is fed.
Ego - It is derived from Id and assists with the outside world. It also helps to translate inner needs into expressions. It deals with the process of practical and rational reflection. Example - We argue with our friend and expect him to speak first, even though we both want to talk.
Superego - It is different from the ego and is partially unconscious. This includes the traditional values of society as interpreted by our parents. It also contributes to the integral view of the punishment. Example - Ram arrived late today, so he is standing still for a week.
Erikson 's Theory
This theory asserts that the personality is maintained throughout life. It presents eight distinct steps each with two possible outcomes. Successful completion of each step leads to a healthy personality. These stages are -
Early childhood - It 's the period between 0 and 1 year. At this point, children learn to trust others based on their guardians. Failure at this stage leads to anxiety and insecurity. Example - Children this age are more comfortable with the faces they see most oftenn’t with strangers.
Early childhood - This is the period between 1 to 3 years old. At this point, children learn to be independent. If they are supported, they become more confident, otherwise they become dependent on others. Example - Children this age learn to walk, talk, etc.
Play Age - This is the period between 3-6 years old. At this point, children frequently assert themselves. Failure leads to the development of a feeling of guilt among them. Example - Children in this age group need to learn to behave and focus.
School age - This is the period between 6 years and puberty. At this point, children become more innovative. They feel confident and want to achieve their goals. If they are not encouraged, they may feel inferior. Example - Adolescents must be protected and parents must understand them and handle them patiently.
Adolescentscence - This stage is a transformation from childhood to adulthood. Here children find their own identity and need to be guided and supported to help them choose the right direction. Example - Decision such as which flow to choose for science or commerce,etc. occurs during this stage.
Early childhood - This stage is also known as a young adult. Here they start to open up and become more intimate with others. Example - Making close friends.
Adulthood - At this stage, they are focused on building their careers and building relationships which are important. Example - Apply for jobs.
Mature adulthood - In this stage a person is old and therefore in this stage the productivity slows down. Example - Taking care of the family.
Theory of Sheldon's physiognomy
This theory was proposed by William Sheldon. It presents personalities by classifying individuals into convenient categories based on their morphology. These are -
In this category, the body is soft and spherical. People with this kind of personality like comfort, eat a lot, like to be around people, and desire affection. Some common endomorphic features are a large amount of fat accumulation, insatiable appetite, taller frame, etc.
Some endomorphic personalities are John Goodman, Jack Black etc.
In this category, the body is a hard, rectangular physique. People with this kind of personality like to take risks, are courageous and have power. Some common mesomorphic features are broad shoulders, short stature, low body fat.
Some mesomorphic personalities are Jennifer Garner, Tina Turner etc.
In this category, the body is fragile, flat chest and delicate body. People with this kind of personality are anxious, ambitious anddedicated. A virgulen the characteristics of ectomorphs are narrow frame, low fat mass, etc.
Some notable ectomorph personalities are Brad Pitt, Bruce Lee etc.
Organizational Behavior - Perception
Perception is an intellectual process of transforming sensory stimuli into meaningful information. It is the process of interpreting something that we see or hear in our mind and use it later to judge and render a verdict on a situation, person, group, etc.
It can be divided into six types -
Sound - The ability to receive sound sound by identifying vibrations.
Speech - The skill of interpreting and understanding the sounds of the language heard.
Touch - Identify objects through patterns of its surface by touching it.
Taste - The capacity of receiving the flavor of substances by tasting it through sensory organs called taste buds.
Other senses - They approve the perception through the body, like balance, acceleration, pain, time, sensation felt in the throat and lungs , etc.
Social world - It enables people to understand other individuals and groups in their social world. Example - Priya goes to a restaurant and loves their customer service, so she will find it a great place to hang out and recommend it to her friends, who may or may not love it. Priya's perception of the restaurant is good.
The perception process is the different stages of perception that we go through. The different stages are -
Reception is the first and most important step in the perception process. This is the initial stage during which a person collects all the information and receives it via the sense organs.
Selection is the second step in the process. Here a person does not receive the data randomly but selectively. A person selects certain information from among all according to his interests or needs. Data selection is dominated by various external and internal factors.
External factors - The factors that influence an individual's perception of the outside are intensity, size, contrast, movement, repetition, familiarity and novelty.
Internal factors - The factors that influence a person's perception internally are psychological demands, learning,he background, experience, self-acceptance and interest.
Keep things in order or say in a synchronized way. In order to make sense of the data received, it is important to organize it.
We can organize the data by -
Group them according to their similarity, proximity, closure, continuity.
Establishing a ground figure is the basic process of perception. Here by figure we mean what is kept as the main objective and by ground we mean background stimuli, which do not receive attention.
Perceptual constancy which is the tendency to stabilize perception so that contextual changes do not affect them.
Finally, we have the process of interpretation which means forming an idea on a particular object according to need or need. 'interest. L Interpretation means that the information we have detected and organized finally gets meaning by turning it into something that can be categorized. This includes stereotypes, the halo effect, etc.
Importance of perception in OB
We need to understand what is the role of perception in an organization. It is very important to establish the different role of perceptions like -
- Understanding the tasks to be performed.
- Understand the associated importance of assigned tasks.
- Understandinganding preferred behavior to perform the respective tasks.
- Clarification of role perceptions.
For example, each member of a group should be clear about their assigned role. The programmer writes the code, the tester checks it, etc.
Organizational behavior - Motivation
Motivation can be described as the internal force that influencesue on the direction, intensity and stamina of a person's voluntary behavior choice. It consists of -
Management - focused by objectives.
Intensity - volume of effort allocated.
Persistence - time required for exercise.
Example - A team leader encourages team members to work effectively.
Characteristics of motivation
Motivation is an internal feeling, that is to say that it defines a person's psychological state. It is an ongoing process and we have to make sure it is not disturbed. A person should be encouraged co
Motivation consists of three interactive and dependent elements -
Needs - The requirements or deficiency created each time there is a physiological imbalance.
Trainings - The difvarious camps or events organized to motivate employees and give them new opportunities.
Incentives - Employees should be rewarded for their good work in order to encourage them.
Importance of motivation
We need to motivate employees for the following reasons -
- Motivated employees are more quality oriented.
- Highly motivated employees are more productive than other employees.
- It helps to achieve three dimensions of human resource behavior, namely
- Applicants must be attracted not only to join but also to stay in the 'business.
- Employees must perform tasks reliably.
- Employees must be creative, spontaneous and innovative at work.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
This theory wasproduced to answer the question "What motivates an individual." Each second need takes effect when the first need is fully met. Maslow explained the hierarchy of needs by grouping them into two: deficiency needs and growth needs.
Each individual should take care of the basic requirements necessary for its maintenance. These requirements include food to eat, clothing to wear, and shelter to live. Thesenecessities are relatively independent of each other but are limited.
Everyone wants to stay in a protected environment with a minimum of danger so that they can have a peaceful life. Security needs mainly include protection against physiological hazards such as accidents and having economic security such as bank accounts, health insurance
In a business, this includes job security, employment increase in wages, etc. The managerial practice to achieve this consists of offering a pension plan, a provident fund, a gratuity, etc.
We have all heard that man is a social animal, we want to be there with these people where we are loved and we are accepted as we are; no one wants to be judged. It is a requirement common to all human desires.
This theory helps managersto think about encouraging their employees by identifying their needs. In short, it presents motivation as an ever-changing force, expressed by the constant urge to meet new and higher levels of need.
Esteem means the typical human desire to be accepted and appreciated by others. People often participate in a profession or a hobby to gain recognition, gain fame and respect. According to Maslow, the needs of humans have strict guidelines - the hierarchies, rather than being sharply separated, are interdependent. This means that the esteem and the resulting levels are not strictly separated but are closely linked.
Self-actualization means realizing one's full potential. Maslow describes this as a desire to complete all that one can, to become the maximum possible.
Theory X & Theory Y
Ourmanagement style is strongly influenced by our beliefs and assumptions about what encourages our team members like: If we think our team members don't like work, then we tend to adopt a management style authoritarian. However, if we assume that employees take pride in doing a good job, we tend to adopt a more participatory style.
Douglas McGregor, the eminent social psychologist, divides the management style into two contrasting theories -
This theory considers that employees are naturally demotivated and don't like to work, which encourages an authoritarian management style. According to this theory, management must intervene firmly to get things done. This management style concludes that workers -
Refrain from all responsibility and the need to lead.
Must be controlled, forced and warned to provide what he needs.
Request to be supervised at every step, with controls in place.
They must be attracted to produce results, otherwise they have neither ambition nor incentive to work.
McGregor observed that Type X workers are in fact a majority in the minority, and yet inmass organizations, such as large-scale production environment, theory X management may be necessary and may be unavoidable.
This theory explains an ative management participstyle, that is to say of a distributive nature. He concludes that employees are happy to work, motivated and creative, and like to work with greater responsibility. He believes that workers -
willingly take their responsibilities and are encouraged to achieve the objectives assigned to them.
Explore and accept responsibility and don't need a lot of advice.
Assume that work is an integral part of life and solve work problems with imagination.
In Y-type organizations, people at lower levels are engaged in decision-making and have more responsibility.
Comparison of Theory X and Theory Y
Let us now compare the two theories -
Theory X considers that people do not like work, they want to avoid it and do not take responsibility of their own free will.
While Theory Y considers that people are motivated and take sporting responsibilities.
Management style and control
In theory Xorganization type, management is authoritarian and centralized control is maintained.
In a theory Y organization, the management style is participative, the employees participate in decision-making, but the power remains to implement decisions.
The employees of Theory X are specialized and the same work cycle continues.
In Theory Y, work tends to be coordinated around broader areas of skill or knowledge. The employalists are also motivated to develop their expertise and make suggestions and improvements.
Rewards and Reviews
Theory Type X organizations work on a carrot and stick basis, and performance review is part of the overall monitoring and compensation mechanism .
For Y-type organizations, evaluation is also regular and crucial, but is usually a separate mechanism from organizational controls. Type Y organizations in theory offer employees frequent promotion opportunities.
Admitting the fact that the management style of Theory X is widely accepted as inferior to others, it has its place in large-scale production procedures and work on unqualified production lines.
Many principles of Theory Y are widely accepted by different types of organizations which valueencourage and motivate active participation.
Theoretical type Y management is appropriate for knowledge and licensed services. Approved service organizations naturally develop theoretical type Y practices by the nature of their work, even a highly structured knowledge framework, such as call center operations, benefit from its principles to motivate knowledge sharing and the amelioration keeps going.
Organizational Behavior - Groups
A group can be defined as two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve particular goals. Group behavior can be described as a course of action that a group takes as a family. For example: Strike.
Types of groups
There are two types of groups in an individual form. These are formal groups and informal groups. Let us know about these two groups.
These are the types of workgroups created by the organization that have designated work assignments and entrenched tasks. The behavior of these groups is aimed at achieving organizational objectives.
These can be classified into two subgroups -
Command group - This is a group made up of people who report directly to the manager.
Interest group - It is a group of people working together to achieve a specific goal. Example - A group of workers working on a project and reporting to the same manager is considered to be a control group. A group of friends relaxing together is considered an interest group or, for example, a member of a club.
These groups are made up of common friendships and interests. These can be classified into two subgroups -
Taskgroup - Those who work together to complete a work or task is known as a workgroup.
Friendship Group - Those who have come together because of their common interests or common characteristics are called Friendship Group .
Why do people join groups
There is no particular reason to explain why individuals join groups.The group helps the individual to feel stronger, have less self-doubt and be more counter to threats.
The following points help us understand the need for individuals to join a group -
Safety reflects the strength of numbers . The statute identifies a prestige that comes from belonging to a specific group. Inclusion in a group is considered comme important because it offers recognition and status.
Self-esteem conveys people's sense of self-esteem . Membership can sometimes arouse feelings of self-esteem, such as being accepted into a highly valued group.
Membership in groups can meet social needs . The working groups contribute significantly to meeting the need for friendships and social relations.
Groups represent power . What, for the most part, cannot be achieved individually becomes possible with group effort. The power could be aimed at protecting against unreasonable demands. Informal groups provide opportunities for individuals to exercise their power.
People can join a group to achieve their goals . Sometimes it takes more than one person to complete a particular task.
The concept of roles is applicable to all employees of an organization as well as to their life outside the organization. A role is a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to the one occupying the position required by the social unit.
Individuals play several roles at the same time. Employees are trying to understand what kind of behavior is expected of them. An individual presented with divergent role expectations experiences a role conflict. Group roles are divided into three types:
- Task-oriented roles
- Relationship-oriented roles
- Individual roles
The roles assigned to individuals according to their work and their eligibility are called task-oriented roles. Task-based roles can divide individuals into six categories: initiator, informant, clarifier, summary, reality testeré and requesters or providers of information respectively.
Initiator - The one who proposes, suggests, defines.
Informant - One who offers facts, expresses feelings, gives opinions.
Clarifier - He who interprets, defines, clarifies everything.
Summarizer - The one who connects, repeats, concludes, sums up.
Reality tester - One who provides critical analysis.
Information requesters or providers - One who gives information and data.
These roles present the work done by different people according to their marked designation.
Relationship oriented roles
Roles that bring people together based on their efforts to maintain a healthy relationship in the group and achieve goals are called role orientedrelationship . There are five categories of individuals in this category, namely: harmonizer, gatekeeper, consensus tester, encourage and compromise.
Harmonizers - One who limits tensions and reconciles disagreements.
Doorman - The one who ensures everyone's participation.
Consensus Tester - One who analyzes the decision-making process.
Encourage - One who is warm, responsive, active, shows acceptance.
Compromiser - He who admits to error, limits conflicts.
These roles describe the different roles that an individual plays in maintaining good self-health as well as group relationships.
Roles that classify a person according to the measure of the individual effort put into the targeted project are known as individual roles. Five types of'individuals fall into these roles: aggressor, blocker, dominator, rider and avoidance.
Aggressor - The one who devalues others, attacks ideas.
Blocker - One who disagrees and rebels beyond reason.
Dominator - The one who insists on superiority to manipulate.
Horseman - One who participates in a group in a non-productive way.
Avoidance - One who shows a special interest in avoiding the task.
These are the different roles a person plays in an organization.
Groups that work well
We know what a group is, why it is important to form a group and what are the group-oriented roles. We now need to know how to mark a group as a group that works well, what functionality is required for agroup marks it as effective.
A group is considered effective when it has the following characteristics.
- Relaxed, comfortable and friendly atmosphere.
- The tasks to be performed are well understood and accepted.
- The members listen well and actively participate in given missions.
- The missions are clear and accepted.
- The group knows how it works and what it does.
- People express their feelings openly.
- A consensual decision-making process is followed.
- Center for conflicts and disagreements concerning ideas o Method r.
Group behavior - Example
Let's understand group behavior with the help of an example.
To work on a specific project, we form a group of 4 members: Rohit, Raj, Sid and Rahul. It is not possible for one of them to carry out the project individually, because itIt may take a long time, and all members, because the individuals have not mastered the skills required to complete the project. This indicates the need to meet as a group.
To go ahead, let's clarify their roles. Rohit is the initiator because he proposes the idea for the project, Raj collects all the information and resources necessary for the project and becomes the informant, Sid is the clarifier when he interprets the data and records information refined, and Rahul is the summarizer as he concludes the outcome of the project which is what we achieve at the end of our project. These are task-oriented roles.
When a group of people get together and present their ideas, there is a risk of an air collision. Rohit tries to resolve all disagreements and disputes in the first place and acts as a harmonizer, Sid makes sure that everyone gives their support and efforts in the project and acts as a guardn, Raj is the one who encourages everyone and motivates them when they fail to put more effort into completing the project and are the encouragers, while Rahul tests the project at every step and reviews the major decision to be made and is the consensus tester. These are the relational roles of each member.
Individually, each has different tasks to complete. Rohit tries to be the group leader and to impose his ideas on others and we consider him as the dominant, Rahul always has excuses to avoid the task entrusted to him and acts as an avoidant, Raj is the one who opposes everything but never stands up with a new idea and becomes the blocker, while Sid participates in every group activity non-productively and becomes the rider.
This is a group to which a person or another group is compared. Reference groups are used to examine and determiner the nature of the sociological characteristics and attributes of a person or another group. It is the group to which a person relates or aspires to bond psychologically.
It is important when deciding on a person's self-identity, attitudes and social ties. It becomes the benchmark ground for making comparisons or contrasts and for judging its appearance and performance. These groups serve as a reference and contrast necessary for the comparison and evaluation of group characteristics and personal characteristics.
An example of a reference group would be wealth certainty. An individual in the United States with an annual income of $ 70,000 can consider himself wealthy if he compares to those of the middle-income strata, who earn about $ 22,000 a year. However, if the same person considers the relevant reference group to be the one in the United States, those who gaearn $ 1.8 million or more, so an individual's $ 70,000 income would make them rather poor.
Group decision-making generally known as collaborative decision-making is a situation encountered when individuals collectively choose among the alternatives before them.
The decision is no longer attributable to any individual member of the group, since all individuals and social group processes such as social influence contribute to the outcome of the decision.
Most of the decisions made by groups are different from those made by individuals. For example, groups tend to make more extreme decisions than those made by individual members, because individuals tend to be biased.
Benefits of group decision making
Group decision making has two advantages over decision makingindividual ision.
It is the idea that the whole is greater than the aggregate of its parts. When a group makes a collective decision, its judgment can be more powerful than that of any of its members. By discussing, challenging, and taking a collaborative approach, group members can identify more comprehensive and robust solutions and recommendations. the group member can bring distinct information and expertise. Sharing information improves understanding, clarifies issues and facilitates movement towards collective decision.
Disadvantages of Group Decision Making
The main disadvantages of group decision making are as follows -
Diffusion of responsibilities
Group decision-making leads to a division of responsibilities which leads to a lack of accountability for results.In this way, everyone is responsible for a decision, and no one really is. In addition, group decisions can make it easier for members to decline personal responsibility and blame others for bad decisions.
Group decisions can sometimes be less effective than individual decisions. It takes longer because there is a need for active participation, discussion and coordination among group members. Without a good animation and a good structure, the meetings can be eliminated in trivial details which can have a great importance for a person but not for the others.
One of the biggest drawbacks of effective group decision making is group thinking. It is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity se results in an illogical or dysfunctional decision-making result.
By abstaining from outside influences and actively suppressing opposing views in the interest of minimizing conflict, group members arrive at a consensus decision without critical appraisal of views .
Group thinking sometimes produces dehumanizing actions against the outside group.
Group decision making techniques
In order to eliminate group thinking and group change, we can use four different techniques that will help us make a collaborative decision which is best for the group. These techniques are -
- Nominal group thinking
- Didactic technique
- Technique Delphi
This technique involves a group of people, usually between five and ten in number, seated around a table, producing ideas in the form of free association. The main emphasis is on the generation of ideas and not on the evaluation of those ideas.
If more ideas can be generated, it is likely that there will be a unique and creative idea among them. All of these ideas are written on the blackboard with a piece of chalk so that all team members can see each idea and try to improvise those ideas.
The Brainstorming Technique is very effective when the problem is relatively specific and can be simply defined. A complex problem can be divided into parts and each part can be dealt with separately at a time.
Nominal group thinking
This technique is similar to brainstorming except that it is a more structured approach. It motivates individual creativity. Members form the homonymous group and operate independently, come up with ideas to solve the problem on their ownes, in silence and in writing. The members do not communicate well with each other in order to avoid a strong personality domination.
The group coordinator collects the written ideas or writes them on a large blackboard so that each member of the group can see what the ideas are. These ideas are then discussed in turn and each participant is motivated to comment on these ideas in order to clarify and improve them. After all of these ideas have been discussed, they are assessed for their merits and disadvantages and each actively participating member is required to vote on and rank each idea based on the priority of each alternative solution.
The idea with the highest cumulative ranking is selected as the final solution to the problem.
This technique is only applicable in certain situations, but is an excellent method when a situation really requires it.nt. The type of problem must be such that it generates an output in the form yes or no. Let's say, for example, that a decision has to be made whether or not to buy a product, to merge or not to merge, to develop or not to develop, etc. These types of decisions require a thorough and exhaustive discussion and investigation because a bad decision can have serious consequences.
This type of situation has many advantages as well as disadvantages. The group making the decision is divided into two subgroups, one in favor of the "go" decision and the opposing in favor of the "no" decision.
The first group lists all "advantages of solving the problem and the second group lists all" cons. These groups meet and discuss their discoveries and their reasons.
After tiring discussions, the groups change sides and try to find weaknesses in their own points oforiginal view. This exchange of ideas and understanding of various points of view results in a mutual acceptance of the facts as they exist so that a solution can be built around these facts and ultimately a final decision. is taken.
This technique is the improvised version of the nominal group technique, except that it involves obtaining the advice of physically distant experts. from each other and unknown to each other.
This isolates group members from the undue influence of others. Basically, the types of problems sorted by this technique are not specific in nature or related to a particular situation at a given time.
For example, the technique could be used to explain the problems that might be created in the event of war. The Delphi technique includes the following steps -
The problem is first identified and apanel of experts is selected. These experts are invited to provide potential solutions through a series of carefully designed questionnaires.
Each expert concludes and returns the initial questionnaire.
Questionnaire results are composed at a central location and the central coordinator prepares a second round of questionnaires based on the previous responses.
Each member receives a copy of the results along with the second questionnaire.
Members are required to review the results and complete the second questionnaire. The results generally trigger new solutions or motivate changes in original ideas.
The process is repeated until general agreement is reached.
Organizational Behavior - Leadership
Leadership can be defined as the ability of management to takee making good decisions and inspiring others to perform well. It is the process of directing the behavior of others towards the achievement of a common goal. In short, leadership gets things done through others.
Importance of leadership
Leadership is very important in a business because it leads to better performance of team members, it improves motivation and morale within members and help respond to change. In short, it increases value in an organization.
Leader Vs Manager
A leader is someone that people follow or someone who guides or directs others. A manager is someone who is responsible for directing and controlling the work and staff in an organization or department within it.
The main difference between the two is that a leader works by example, while a manager sets expectations. If a managergoes against the rules, it will tarnish his managerial position. If a leader goes against the example he is trying to set, it will be considered a setback. Here are some subtle differences between the two -
A leader is an innovator and a creator while a manager is a commander.
A leader cannot be a manager but the reverse is possible, a manager is more than a leader.
A leader does the right thing, while the manager does the right thing.
A leader deals with change while a manager plans a change.
A the leader gives instructions to do something while the manager plans everything that needs to be done.
A leader encourages people while a manager controls people.
A leader manages communication, credibility and empowerment whilethat a manager takes care of the organization and staffing.
Different styles of leadership exist in work environments. The culture and purpose of an organization determines which leadership style is best suited. Some organizations offer different styles of leadership within an organization, depending on the tasks required to be accomplished and the needs of the department.
We find five different styles of leadership in the corporate world. They are as follows -
A laissez-faire leader does not directly supervise employees and does not provide regular updates to those under their supervision. Highly experienced and trained employees with minimal supervision requirements fall under the laissez-faire style.
But not all employees have these characteristics. This leadership style blocks the production of 'employees requiring supervision. The laissez-faire style does not involve any leadership or supervisory effort on the part of managers, which can lead to poor production, lack of control and costs.
The autocratic leadership style allows managers to make decisions alone without the contribution of others. Managers gain full authority and impose their will on employees. Nobody objects to the decisions of autocratic leaders. Countries like Cuba and North Korea operate on the autocratic leadership style.
This style of leadership benefits those who require direct supervision. Creative employees who participate in group functions hate this style of leadership.
This is also known as the democratic leadership style. He appreciates the contribution of team members and peers, but the rresponsibility for making the final decision rests with the participatory leader. Participatory leadership motivates employee morale because employees contribute to the decision-making process. This reflects the feeling that their opinions are important.
When an organization needs to make changes in itself, i.e. internally, the participatory manager Leadership style helps employees to easily accept changes as they play a role. role in the process. This style of leadership takes on challenges when companies have to make a decision in a short period of time.
The transactional leadership style is formed by the concept of reward and punishment. Transactional leaders believe that employee performance depends entirely on these two factors. When there is an incentive, workers do their best and the bonus is in monetary terms in most cases.as. If they fail to reach the target, they receive a negative evaluation.
Transaction managers pay more attention to the physical and security requirements of employees.
Transformational leadership has the ability to influence employee perception through the returns the organization achieves in the form of human capital benefits . These leaders have the ability to reap higher benefits by introducing a knowledge management process, encouraging interpersonal communication between employees and creating a healthy organizational culture.
It contributes to the flourishing of organizational innovation by creating a participative environment or culture. It promotes a culture where employees have the autonomy to talk about their experiences and share their knowledge.
We have seen that transformational leaders aret more innovative than transactional and laissez-faire leaders.
Traditional theory is a theory based on different traits of a human being. It assumes that leaders are born and not made. According to this theory, leadership behavior is the sum total of all the traits that a leader possesses.
Thus, this theory gives the profile of a successful and complete leader. According to this theory, there are five human traits. These are -
physical trait - this includes energy, activity, appearance and the height.
trait of ability - it includes judgment, knowledge and speaking skills.
Personal trait - this includes self-confidence, creativity and enthusiasm.
Trait de travail - this includes organization and success.
Social Trait - it includesd interpersonal skills, cooperation, popularity and prestige.
Here are the main disadvantages of this theory -
- The features are not classified according to their importance.
- There is no quantitative tool for judging human traits.
- This trait cannot be used universally.
- This trait can be achieved and developed.
- Situational factors are avoided.
This theory explains the effectiveness of leadership. According to this theory, leadership has two qualities, that is, the initiating structure and the consideration. These qualities are tested at higher and lower levels with an intersection.
This is the level to which a leader is task oriented and directs the employee toward the achievement of a goal. Inin this case, the leader gives instructions, plans and plans work activities.
This is the level at which a leader is concerned with subordinates, ideas and feelings. Caring leaders are friendly, they care about the well-being and satisfaction of subordinates.
This type of leadership is achieved through performance and is proven to be effective. But this is not the best way because the situational factors are not taken into account.amazement.
According to this theory, proposed by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard, estimates the effectiveness of a leader depends on the action or the availability of his supporters. By preparation we mean to what extent the followers are able and willing to reach the goal.
This theory is explained on the basis of four cases.
Case 1 - In the first case, we have a behavior rHigh rational and low task behavior. The leader motivates the followers and helps in decision-making. There is not much productivity in this case, but the feeling of oneness is high.
Case 2 - In case two, we have high relational behavior as well as high task behavior. In this combination, the leader explains the decision and helps build employee confidence. In this case, productivity as well as loyalty to the leader are more important.
Case 3 - In case three, we have a combination of weak behavioral relation and low task behavior. Here we see that the leader delegates the responsibility for decision making to the next. In this case, there is bad communication as well as bad production.
Case 4 - We are dealing here with a combination of weak relational behavior and high behavior compotask. The leader gives specific direction and oversees performance. This theory is only effective if leaders change styles regardless of the followers' readiness.
Conflict can be defined as a mental struggle resulting from incompatible needs, urges, wishes and external or internal demands or opposites. Where there are people, there are conflicts.
They are usually taken in a negative association. However, this is incorrect because conflicts are necessary for healthy relationships. It all depends on the approach we use to resolve the conflict.
Classification of conflicts
When we think of the different types of conflicts, we can instantly think of those mentioned in literature, especially in fiction. They can be applied to real life, of course. However, in contemporary times, types ofe conflicts that are easily identifiable are classified into four different types -
Intrapersonal conflict takes place within an individual. The person experiences it in their own mind. It is therefore a type of psychological conflict involving the thoughts, values, principles and emotions of the individual. Intrapersonal conflicts can take many forms, from the mundane like the decision to go vegan for lunch to those that can affect major decisions like choosing a career path.
However, this type of conflict can be quite difficult to deal with, if you are struggling to decipher your inner struggles. It results in restlessness and discomfort, or can even cause depression. In such occasions it is advisable to seek a moyen to let go of anxiety by communicating with other people. Finally, when the person finds himself out of the situation, he can become more independent as a person. Thus, the experience calls for positive change that contributes to personal growth.
An intra-group conflict occurs between individuals on a team. Incompatibilities and misunderstandings between team members lead to intragroup conflict. It starts with interpersonal disagreements as team members have different personalities which can lead to tensions or differences of views and ideas. Suppose, for example, that during a presentation, team members may find the concepts presented by the chairperson incorrect because of their differences of opinion.
Within a team, a conflict can be useful in finding decisions that will eventually allow them to attainmeet their goals as a team. But, if the degree of conflict disturbs the harmony between the members, then serious advice from another party will be needed to get it resolved.
An interpersonal conflict means a conflict between two individuals. Basically it happens due to some differences between people. We have diverse personalities who generally lead to incompatible choices and opinions. It is therefore a natural phenomenon that can eventually contribute to personal growth or the development of our relationships with others.
In addition, adjustments are needed to deal with this type of conflict. However, when an interpersonal conflict becomes too destructive, using a mediator helps to resolve the problem.
An intergroup conflict occurs when a misunderstanding occurs between different teams within'the same group. organization. For example, the marketing department of an organization may conflict with the customer support department. This is due to the diversity of objectives and interests of these different groups. In addition to this, competition also contributes to group conflict. There are other factors that increase this type of conflict. Some of these factors may include a rivalry in resources or the limits set by one group over others that form their own identity as a team.
Conflict should not always be seen as a problem rather than sometimes of growth and can be an effective way to open up to groups or individuals. However, when conflict begins to suppress or disrupt productivity and leaves room for more conflict, conflict management is what is needed for problem resolution.
Conflict resolution isa method used by two or more parties finds a peaceful solution to a disagreement between them. The disagreement can be personal, financial, political or emotional. When a disagreement arises, the best solution is often negotiation to resolve the disagreement. We all know that when people get together for a discussion, it is not necessary that what one thinks is just the other thi. In the same way, this difference in thought or mentality leads to conflict.
"I do my best at work and you expect me to do more! Why don't you ask the other team members? " This is the start conflict! Tell us about some conflict management techniques.
Conflict management techniques
We get into a conflict when the person in front of us has a different mindset. It is very common in a workplace to encounter differences of opinion.Sometimes there is a conflict between two or more employees, sometimes the employees have a conflict with their managers, etc. Now the question is how to handle disagreements so as to create personal and collegial relationships.
Here are five strategies from conflict management theory for dealing with stressful situations. None of them is a "one size fits all" answer. Which is best in a given situation depends on a variety of factors, including an assessment of the levels of conflict.
Collaboration - win / win
Compromise - win or lose
accommodating - lose / win
In competition - win / lose
Avoid - no winners / no losers
This technique follows the "I win, you win " rule. To collaborate is to work inseems to incorporate ideas expressed by several people. The goal here is to find a creative solution acceptable to all. This takes a considerable amount of time but is not suitable for all conflicts.
This technique is used in situations where -
- There is a high level of trust
- We don't want to not take full responsibility
- We want others to also have "ownership " of the solutions
- Those involved are ready to change the way they think
- We have to work through animosity and hard feelings
However, this process takes a lot of time and energy and some can take advantage of the confidence and openness to others.
Example - A businessman should work collaboratively with the manager to establish policies, but collaborative decision making regarding wastee office supplies better time spent on other activities.
This technique follows the "You fold, I fold " rule. Compromise means adjusting to the opinions and ideas of others and thinking of a solution where certain points of both parties can be heard. Likewise, both parties have to give up some of their ideas and have to agree with the other.
This technique can be used in situations where -
People of equal levels are also attached to goals
Time can be saved by reaching intermediate settlements on individual parts of complex issues
Goals are moderately important
Important values and long-term goals can be derailed using this technique. This process may not work if the initial demands are high and mainly ifThere is no commitment to honor compromise solutions.
Example - Two friends have fought and they decide to compromise with each other through mutual understanding.
This technique follows the rule "I lose, you win". Adapting means giving up ideas and thoughts so that the other party wins and the conflict ends. This technique can be used when -
A problem is not as important to us as it is to the other person
We realize we are wrong
We are ready to let others learn by mistake
We know we can't win
This is not the right time and we would rather just build credit for the future
Harmony is extremely important
What the parties have in common is much more importantas long as their differences
However, using this technique, his own ideas don 't attract attention and credibility, and influence may be lost.
Example - When we fight with someone we love, we choose to let them win.
This technique follows the rule "I win, you lose ". Competition means that when there is a dispute, one person or group is unwilling to collaborate or adapt, but simply wants the opposing party to lose. This technique can be used when -
We know you are right.
Time is short and a quick decision must be made.
A strong personality is trying to wrap us up and we don't want to take advantage of it.
We must stand up for our rights.
This technique can further aggravate the conflict or the losers peuvent retaliate.
Example - In a debate, the party with the most facts wins.
This technique follows the "No winners, no losers " rule. Avoidance means that ideas suggested by both parties are rejected and a third person involved who makes a decision without favoring either party. This technique can be used when -
The conflict is small and relationships are at stake
We 're counting to ten to cool off
More important questions are pressing and we feel that we don ' t have time to deal with this one in particular
We have no power and we see no chance to address our concerns
We are too involved emotionally and others around us can resolve the conflict more successfully
Using this technique peThis can lead to the postponement of the conflict, which can make matters worse.
Example - Rahul and Rohit got into a fight, their mother came and punished them both.
Organizational Behavior - Culture
Organizational culture can be defined as the group norms, values, beliefs and assumptions practiced in an organization. It brings stability and control within the company. The organization is more stable and its purpose can be understood more clearly.
Organizational culture helps group members to resolve their differences, overcome obstacles and also helps them to fight against risks.
Elements of organizational culture
The two key elements seen in organizational culture are -
Visible elements - These elements are seen by the outside world. Example, dress code, activities, configuration, etc.
Invisible Items - These inner party items cannot be seen by people outside the party or firm up. Example, values, standards, assumptions, etc. Now let's look at some other elements of organizational culture. These are -
Stories - Stories about the history of the company or the founder.
Rituals - Specific practices that an organization follows as usual.
Symbol - The logo or signature or style statement of a company.
Language - A common language that can be followed by anyone, like English.
Practice - Discipline, daily routine or say the tight schedule that everyone follows without any failure.
Values and standards - The idea on which a business is based or the thinking of the business is seen as its value andthe condition for adopting them is called standards.
Hypotheses - This means that we consider something to be true without any fact. Assumptions can be used as a work standard, which means employees prepare to stay above the standard.
Different types of organizational culture
The culture a company follows can be classified into different types. They are -
- Mechanistic and organic culture
- Authoritarian and participatory culture
- Sub-culture and dominant culture
- Strong and weak culture
- Entrepreneurial and market culture
Mechanistic and organic culture
MechanIt culture is formed by formal rules and standard operating procedures. Everything must be clearly defined for the employees as their task, their responsibility and the authorities concerned. The communication procession is carried out according to the direction given by the organization. Responsibility is one of the key factors in mechanistic culture.
Organic culture is defined as the essence of social values in an organization. So there is a high degree of sociability with very few formal rules and regulations in the business. It has a systematic hierarchy of authority which leads to the free flow of communications. Some key elements of organic culture include authority, responsibility, empowerment and direct flow to the employee.
Authoritarian and participative culture
Authoritarian culture means the power of everyone. In this culture, power remains with top-level leadership. All decisions are made by management without employee involvement in the decision making as well as the goal setting process. Authority Demands Obedience and Warns Employeeagainst a penalty in the event of error or irregularity. This type of culture is followed by the military organization.
In a participatory culture, employees are actively involved in the decision-making process and the definition of objectives. As the name suggests, he believes in collaborative decision making. In this type of culture, employees are perfectionists, active and professional. In addition to group decision making, the group problem solving process is also seen here.
Subculture and dominant culture
In the subculture, some members of the organization create and follow a culture but not all members. It's part of organizational culture, so we can see many subcultures in an organization. Each department of a company has its own culture which turns into a subculture. Thus, the strength and adaptability of an organizational culture depend onof the success of the subculture.
In the ant culture, the majority of subcultures combine to become a dominant culture. The success of the dominant culture depends on the homogeneity of the subculture, that is, the mixing of different cultures. At the same time, a cold war between a dominant culture and a minor culture can also be observed.
Strong and Weak Culture
In a strong culture, employees are loyal and have a sense of belonging to the organization. They take pride in their company and the work they do and pursue their goal with proper coordination and control. Perception and commitment are two aspects that we see in employees. In this culture, there is less staff turnover and high productivity.
In a weak culture, employees hardly praise their organization. There is no loyalty to the wholereprise. Thus, employee dissatisfaction and high turnover of the workforce are two aspects of this culture.
Entrepreneurial and market culture
Entrepreneurial culture is a flexible and risky culture. Here, employees show their spirit of innovation and are experimental in practice. Individual initiations make the goal easy to reach. Employees have freedom in their activity. The organization rewards employees for better performance.
Market culture is based on achieving the goal. It is a very focused and completely profit oriented culture. Here, the relationship between employees and the organization is to achieve the goal. The social relationship between workers is not motivating.
How to create an organizational culture
An organizational culture is created with the combination of some criteria mentioned below -
The founder of the organization can partly establish a culture.
The environment in which the norms of the organization can influence its activities to establish a culture.
Sometimes an exchange of cultures between different organizations creates different new cultures.
Members of the organization can define a flexible culture to adapt.
New cultures are also created in an organization due to the demand of time and situation.
The culture of an organization can change due to the composition of staff, mergers and acquisitions, the organization planned change and influence from another organizational culture.
Organizational Behavior - Change
Organizational change can be defined as the alteration of the structure, technology or people ins an organization or the behavior of an organization. Here we should note that the change in organizational culture is different from the change in an organization. A new method or style or rule is implemented here.
Organizational change occurs due to two main factors, namely -
External factor - External factors are the factors that are present outside the company but force the firm to modify or implement a new law, rule, etc. For example, all banks are required to follow the rules established by the RBI.
Internal factor - Internal factors are the factors that are caused or introduced into an organization that force change. For example, smoking is prohibited in the workplace.
Analysis of the force field of Kurt Lewin
Kurt Lewin,is a recognized organization theorist who proposed the force field analysis of organizational change. In this theory, he prioritized two factors of change in an organization, namely -
Driving force - The force driving force can be defined as an organizational force that changes structure, people and technology. In short, it leads the organization from one culture to another.
Restoration Force - The Restoration Force is the force that changes the culture from the existing state to the old state. It indicates backward movement while driving force indicates advancement.
Importance of organizational change
There is a need for change in an organization because there is always a hope of development, and to survive in a competitive market, the organization needs to be updated with changes. However, we have enList a few reasons for why changes are deliberately made and carefully planned by the organization before implementation.
- It improves the means of satisfying the economic requirements of
- It improves the profitability of the organization.
- It promotes employee satisfaction and well-being.
We can define planned change as any type of alteration or modification made in advance and differently for improvement.
The need for planned change
Planned change takes place in an organization when there is a demand for change due to two types of forces. These forces are grouped into internal and external sources.
The internal forces that lead to planned change in an organization include the obsolescence of production and services, new opportunities in myrché, a new strategic orientation, an increased diversity of the workforce and a change in socio-cultural values.
External forces that drive planned change in an organization include regulators, competitors, market forces, customers, and technology. Each of these forces can create an urgent demand for change in small or large public or private, commercial or non-commercial organizations.
Planned change process
Once management decides to implement certain changes in the organization, it must be done with care as it is a very sensitive. It is very important for all employees to adapt to change. According to Kurt Lewin, the planned organizational change is implemented in three different stages. These are -
Thaw - At this point, the organization is considering whether change is necessary.e or not, what and why the change is necessary. Considering the whole situation, the organization decides on an appropriate change. Thus, a plan and strategy are formulated as needed.
Change - At this point, the organization is executing the change plan and program. To this end, appropriate precautions are taken to maintain cooperation and coordination between employees and management, avoiding communication problems or disputes. Adequate supervision and control is organized as needed.
Refreezing - This is the last step, to bring about organizational change. As a supervisor, the organization attempts to assess the effectiveness of the change. By collecting all this information, management interprets whether to continue or replace the change with other alternatives or make other minor changes.
Types of expected change
Based on the requirements of a company, the planned change is classified into three types. They are -
- Change of structure
- Change of technology
- Change of people
Change of structure
We say that the planned change required is a change of structure when development is required in the following areas -
- Change of direction
- New direction
- Change of position or location
- Change of purpose, rules, regulations, etc.
- New branch launch
Change in technology
We say that the planned change required is a change in technology when the development is required in the following areas -
- Office automation requirements
- Installation of new hardwarels and software
- Execution of new working procedures
- New methods in the production function
- Production of new products and devices
- New training, research and development program
Change of people
We say that the change required project is a change of people when development is required in the areas following -
- New candidate requirement
- Promotion or demotion
- Transfer to another location
- Suspension or dismissal
- Training and development
Organizational behavior - Development
Organizational development is a area of research, theory and practice devoted to expanding the knowledge and effectiveness of how people achieve successful organizational change and performance.
Organizational development is not an overnight transformation it can be done in an organization, it is rather a gradual process which must be carried out systematically and taking care of the environment external.
Organizational development techniques
Companies adopt technical organizational development to change the behavior of people who resist change. It is a program aimed at changing the values, norms, attitudes, perception and behavior of people and improving the quality of interpersonal relationships. Some of the main organizational development techniques are -
- Sensitivity technique
- Survey feedback
- Consulting process
- Team building
- Intergroup development
Now let's look at all these techniques.
Here, sensitivity refers to the psychological aspect of the human mind that must be shaped to act as intended by the group. In this technique, his own weakness is exposed and members understand how others react to them. The emphasis is on group dynamics and the fight against conflict between relationships.
The idea is to improve the behavior of people in order to maintain a smooth interpersonal relationship without any power or influence. Members are motivated to have an open and sincere conversation to develop a mature relationship. Sensitivity training is limited to psychotherapy where emotions as well as bo
In this technique, the deviations within a group are eliminated using questionnaires, which identify the difference in perception between the same work family, the same group or department. The data collected is thentabulated and distributed for further deliberation. This serves as the basis for further discussions and possible differences can be resolved by open discussions with all parties concerned, defending and opposing each other until consensus is reached. This technique mainly focuses on the ideas and not on the people who implement these ideas.
In this technique, a company can either seek the support of outside experts. The company must verify that the consultation of the process is carried out by an external expert with the necessary support provided by the authorities within the organization.
In this technique, attempts are made at the group or inter-group level. The objective hand is to improve coordination, thereby improving performance as a group. This can be done by the establishment of objectifs, interpersonal relations development, role analysis to identify roles and responsibilities and analysis of team processes.
The intergroup development technique attempts to change the perceptions of groups about themselves or about other groups. This can be done by organizing an independent group meeting, developing a list including self-perception, opinions on other departments and how others see them, trying to understand and resolve the real cause of the conflicts, or by subgrouping the groups to eliminate differences in perception and the impressions that the groups have of each other.